“When most people think of the Book of the Dead, they think of the large, well illustrated papyrus scrolls such as the famous papyrus of Ani. However, the use of the modern title “Book of the Dead” is very misleading, as what we call the Book of the Dead is far more variable and complex set of texts. In fact, the Book of the Dead is not a “Book” in the modern sense of the term, neither in narrative concept nor in physical format. Modern books with their bound pages are descendants of the codex, a format in which a medium such as parchment or papyrus was folded and cut to produce facing pages. Groups of these pages were then gathered together and sewn through the folded edge to produce the book block. A cover of wood or leather would have been attached as a protective covering for the pages inside. The codex format became common in ancient Egypt only after the second century AD. Up until then, and for a time afterward, the primary format for “books” in ancient Egypt was the papyrus scroll.”
“‘Egypt in the First Millennium BC’ is a collection of articles, most of which are based on the talks given at the conference of the same name organised by the team of the South Asasif Conservation Project (SACP), an Egyptian-American Mission working under the auspices of the Ministry of State for Antiquities (MSA), Egypt in Luxor in 2012. The organisers of the conference Elena Pischikova, Julia Budka, and Kenneth Griffin intended to bring together a group of speakers who would share the results of their recent field research in the tombs and temples of the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Dynasties in Thebes and other archaeological sites, as well as addressing a variety of issues relevant to different aspects of Egyptian monuments of this period.”
Thebes in the First Millennium BC: Art and Archaeology of the Kushite Period and Beyond (GHP Egyptology)
Found in the Ramesseum at Thebes. The deceased woman, in a diaphanous white gown, wears a cone of perfumed beeswax and a water lily on her head. She pours a libation over a table of food offerings and raises her hand to greet the seated god Ra-Horakhty. The hieroglyphic signs offer a prayer asking the gods to supply food and drink for the survival of her spirit in the netherworld. Found in the Ramesseum at Thebes. Third Intermediate Period, 22nd Dynasty, ca. 943-716 BC. Now in the Oriental Institute of Chicago.
“Every temple was divided into zones of increasing sacredness. First were the temple approaches and the area within the compound’s enclosure – an area open to every Egyptian. Next came the pylon gateways and outer courts of the temple proper which were accessible to the priests and, on some occasions, to representatives of die populace. Finally there were the inner halls, which only the purified priests were allowed access to, and the sanctuary itself, which could be entered only by the king and by certain priests of the highest ranks. Beyond these areas central to every temple’s form and role, other ancillary elements were often also present administrative chambers, magazines and stores, sacred lakes, gardens, schools, libraries and areas dedicated to numerous other uses.”