Category: 18th dynasty

Temple of Hatshepsut

Stairway Up To Mortuary Temple Of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahari.

Tutankhamun’s Usekh Collar

Glass beads and semi-precious stones. From the Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62), Valley of the Kings, West Thebes. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Pectoral of Tutankhamun

The Eye of Ra pectoral, from the Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62).

The necklace, on which this pectoral was suspended in the layer of amulets nearest to the king’s mummy, consists of blue faience, plain gold, and granulated gold cylindrical beads.

New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, reign of Tutankhamun, ca. 1332-1323 BC. Valley of the Kings, West Thebes. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Photo: Ahmed Mohamed

Temple of Hatshepsut

The Sanctuary of Amun in the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, West Thebes.

Basin with a boat from the tomb of Tutankhamun

It is considered one of the most beautiful pieces of the collection of king Tutankhamun. It was found in the annex of his tomb.

The purpose of this artifact is not clear, but it was either an unguent container or a perfume holder or most probably it was a centerpiece used during celebrations and ceremonies for decoration purposes because when Howard Carter found it, it was covered with garlands of flowers. It is thought that this basin might have been filled with water to complete the image of the decorative centerpiece.

At the prow a naked girl with a curly wig, wearing earrings, armlets and bracelets, is represented seated and holding in her hand a blue lotus. · At the stern, there is a dwarf standing naked and he is wearing a wig similar to the one worn by the girl. He is also wearing armlets and bracelets. When this piece was first discovered, he was holding a pole in his hand and most probably he was the helmsman who directed the boat.

Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62).

Valley of the Kings, West Thebes. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Bust of Nefertiti

It is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. Owing to the work, Nefertiti has become one of the most famous women of the ancient world, and an icon of feminine beauty.

A close view of the gold funerary mask of the pharaoh Tutankhamun

Probably the most famous artifact in the world, the 11 kg death mask of pharaoh Tutankhamun was restored in 2015. The work is more than just the careful repair of a 3300 year old death mask. 

In August 2014, cleaning staff in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo mishandled. They accidentally knocked off the beard of Tutankhamun’s death mask. In no time at all, they glued the separated beard back on with an insoluble epoxy resin ( also known as superglue ). This was not a good idea, as it later turned out: “ They didn’t reattach the beard in its original position, the beard tilted slightly to the left side,” explains Christian Eckmann. 

The German is a recognized restorer from the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, an archaeological research institute in Mainz.He was commissioned by the Cairo Museum to restore the death mask. It was feared that the valuable artefact had been irreparably damaged with the dilettante glue. Eckmann calmed the minds and said that the damage could be repaired. “ The beard was not only damaged during the work, but it was already damaged when Howard Carter found the mask,” Eckmann says. “

After the excavation, when the mask was brought to the museum, they had not reattached the beard to the mask – until 1946.” Nicholas Reeves then claims that Tutankhamun’s grave mask and many other treasures of the tomb were originally made for the queen and only later manipulated, namely when the king died unexpectedly young. Since 2001, research has suggested that it may originally have been intended for Queen Neferneferuaten; her royal name ( Ankhkheperure ) was found in a partly erased cartouche on the inside of the mask. Anyway, the mask originally consisted of two parts. Matchings with the faces of Nefertiti and Tutankhamun speak clearly for an adaptation of the mask for Nefertiti ! The Egyptologist Chris Naughton, Director for The Egypt Exploration Society, tries to clarify the situation.

The mask is 54 cm ( 21 in ) tall, 39.3 cm ( 15.5 in ) wide and 49 cm ( 19 in ) deep. It is fashioned from two layers of high-karat gold, varying from 1.5–3 mm ( 0.059–0.118 in ) in thickness, and weighing 10.23 kg ( 22.6 lb ). X-ray crystallography has revealed that the mask contains two alloys of gold: a lighter 18.4 karat shade for the face and neck, and 22.5 karat gold for the rest of the mask. 

A protective spell is inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs on the back and shoulders in ten vertical and two horizontal lines.The spell first appeared on masks in the Middle Kingdom, 500 years before Tutankhamun, and was used in Chapter 151 of the Book of the Dead :
„ Thy right eye is the night bark ( of the sun-god ), thy left eye is the day-bark, thy eyebrows are ( those of ) the Ennead of the Gods, thy forehead is ( that of ) Anubis, the nape of thy neck is ( that of ) Horus, thy locks of hair are ( those of ) Ptah-Sokar. ( Thou art ) in front of the Osiris ( Tutankhamun ). He sees thanks to thee, thou guidest him to the goodly ways, thou smitest for him the confederates of Seth so that he may overthrow thine enemies before the Ennead of the Gods in the great Castle of the Prince, which is in Heliopolis … the Osiris, the King of Upper Egypt Nebkheperure [ Tutankhamun’s throne-name ], deceased, given life by Re.“

King Tutankhamun’s collection of treasures is significant for several reasons. The treasures date back to the Eighteenth Dynasty, which is considered the most prosperous era of Ancient Egypt. At that time, Egypt had strengthened relations and cultural influence with the regions of the Ancient Near East, especially those of the northeastern territories and the Aegean Sea, as a result of military campaigns, trade, and the exchange of craftsmen and artists. Tutankhamun’s collection is the most complete royal treasure ever discovered, consisting of more than 3850 artifacts. Spectacular examples include an exquisite gold mask and three mummy-shaped coffins, one of solid gold and two of gilded wood. 

This collection was kept intact in Egypt to show how royal tombs were provisioned. The discovery included everyday artifacts such as toys and games, chairs, stools and beds, wine jars and boxes of food, bows, arrows, swords, and boomerangs. The collection also included guardian statues, ritual statues of deities, and magical objects to protect and assist the king in the afterlife. We learn much from this discovery about the personal life of the king, such as his love of hunting, his happy marriage to his wife, Ankhesenamun, and his relations with high officials, who provided him inscribed shawabtis, statuettes intended to perform work in place of the deceased in the underworld.

Photograph by De Agostini Picture Library, G. Dagli Orti/Bridgeman

Mirror with Hathor Emblem Handle

Silver disk and wooden handle sheathed in gold, inlays restored. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, reign of Thutmose III, ca. 1479-1425 BC. 

From the Tomb of Three Foreign Wives of Tuthmosis III, Menhet, Menwi and Merti.

Wady Gabbanat el-Qurud. Now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Tutankhamun’s sandals

Sandals of the king Tutankhamun. Gold and leather. From the Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62), Valley of the Kings, West Thebes. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Colossal Statue of Akhenaten

A group of colossal statues of Akhenaten, originally from the Temple of the Aten at Karnak, are on display in the Egyptian Museum. These statues may represent the first time that Akhenaten’s new religious thoughts were translated into art and architecture. 

Here we see the king standing, wearing a kilt that hangs below his swollen stomach. It is tied with a belt, decorated with the royal cartouche. He wears the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, as well as the Khat-headdress. In his hands he holds symbols of power and authority. His features are presented in the typical style of the period, with narrow slanting eyes, a long thin face, and thick lips. 

New Kingdom, Amarna Period, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353-1336 BC. From the Temple of Aten, Karnak. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Ground Floor, Room 3, 

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